Adaptive Traffic Law Enforcement using IoT devices

by Naief Budawelah

In our region (the Middle East) it is clear that in near future city traffic planning and managing would become one of the most critical aspects of cities management. The number of vehicles is increasing rapidly and today is in multiple folds compared to a decade ago. Most of these countries have an expanding road network but with a limited infrastructure. An article in Arab news stated that a 19 person is dying daily due to traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia, by 2014 the government decided to enforce traffic control and monitoring (19 die daily in KSA road accidents, 2013).

19 person is dying daily due to traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

Recently traffic law enforcement authority; has been privatizing the traffic law enforcement, and awarded operators from the private sector license to operate as a traffic law enforcer in the different region within the country. Their duty ranged from deploying a fixed traffic violation camera (a fixed location) over intersections to monitor red light violation and in some street for a speed violation. Also, a mobile unit is used to perform the same task was used to minimize cost and increase efficiency.

The Operator is also responsible for collecting, verifying, validating, and violation registration with a national information center, which is a unique process requirement compared to other countries. The operator is responsible for buying and deploying, running the equipment and is paid back a percentage of the violation ticket value. A survey was conducted last year by these multiple operators and the common violations per day were around 35,000 violation per day (speeding and red-light violation).

the common violations per day were around 35,000 violation per day


Figure 1. A High-Level Operator Business Process Flow

While the operators keep tweaking and accelerating the validation and verification processes (validation is a manual process; where an operator is required to validate the violation was a valid one, and the verification is also a manual process; to verify that the vehicle will not be reported as stolen, nor a police or an ambulance vehicle).  However, the most important step in that process is the collection, which consists of deploying a fleet of mobile units to different streets and intersections.

Mobile units used for two reasons, the lack of internet connectivity in most of the sites that need monitoring, and reducing the cost due to a higher cost for the fixed locations and the need for a resource to collect the violation packages (images) manually.

In the daily operation, the Historical statistics is used to predict which streets it would be optimal for the deployment while historical statistics is a good step, we believe IoT would increase efficiency in traffic law enforcement and also provide a real-time feed to the traffic management control system.

The Internet of things (IoT) is a new paradigm that describes all objects which are equipped with micro controllers, transceivers and a secure communication protocol to communicate with each other and the users (Zanella et al. 2014). IoT has much potential in many industrial sectors, and for personal, examples of IoT benefits are Health monitoring, home Automation, smart power grids and many other fields. In Smart Cities, the primary focus is to manage Traffic and resolve congestion, but that does not mean that IoT can be used to enforce traffic law by keeping cost down and increasing efficiency.

The proposed system consists of a small IoT device with an embedded radar module

The proposed system consists of a small IoT device with an embedded radar module. The device will provide car counting and classification data in real-time which will be transmitted over a low-speed internet bandwidth connection (Edge/3G ); and sent back to a data processing center, where data is logged and analyzed using Big-Data analysis software and also used to train a learning model( A.I. Expert System) which later on can provide feedback to scheduling supervisors about which location is best for deployment.


Figure 2. An Abstract Diagram of the Proposed Concept

Also, the collected data can be mined in real-time to provide congestion detection, road statistics and accident detection with decent accuracy that allow TMC (Traffic Management Center) operators to make an intelligent decision about routing traffic to different roads or provide feedback to drivers.

The traffic information is an essential source of data in smart cities which when applied to a proper analysis it can benefit both residents and the government. While residents can use this information to plan their schedule by factoring in the arrival times at their destinations. Governments can monitor the traffic congestion in the smart city in real-time, with fewer resource and in the much efficient way.

While vision based car counting & classification systems are already available in many cities, they require higher bandwidth connections, and they also need a much powerful hardware capable of doing image processing which is not the case in IoT (Talari et al. 2017). Also, the real value comes from mining the data.


Figure 3. the Benefits to the Value Chain Vs. The Level of Analytics (VITRIA, 2015)

The proposed system provides benefits by increasing efficiency in deploying the mobile unit which can increase collection and decrease required resource yielding to better profit margin.

img4Figure 4. The Proposed Collection Process


Figure 5. Dubai traffic violation processing (KHALEEJ TIMES, 2017)



Talari, S., Shafie-khah, M., Siano, P., Loia, V., Tommasetti, A. and Catalão, J. (2017) ‘A Review of Smart Cities Based on the Internet of Things Concept,’ Energies, 10(4), 421.

VITRIA. 2015. Vitria’s Analytics Value Chain is The Key to Timely Outcomes in IoT [Online]. Available: [Accessed 26 Aug 2017].

Zanella, A., Member, S., Bui, N., Castellani, A., Vangelista, L., Member, S. and Zorzi, M. (2014) ‘Internet of Things for Smart Cities,’ EEE INTERNET OF THINGS JOURNAL, 1, Pages 22-32.

19 die daily in KSA road accidents (2013) [online]. Available from: [accessed 25 August 2017].

5 violations other than speeding that Dubai Police radars catch, 2017. Youtube. Directed by KHALEEJ TIMES.

Feedback article/post after attending a Webinar/Webcast


by Naief Budawelah    |   Student ID: @00508322

Title: Android Things for IoT products embedded devices webinar
Speaker: Vince Wu, Lead Product management for Android Things

In the live webcast, lead product manager for Android Things Mr. Wu, start to list all the positive things about IoT, and the challenges meet the IoT creator when developing it is own OS for his IoT hardware.

In the webcast he mentioned building an IoT device with AI capabilities will require the developer to delegate cloud-based AI.

He also indicated the difficulty when securing that IoT device, and the cost impact of building secure codes.

He also mentioned the debugging challenges of that kind of codes he develops for his/her IoT device might occur. Moreover, also, keep that device up to date is another challenge. Moreover, Google also builds their own devices with their codes.

So, Google took the decision to unify this world and solve all these problems with Android Things product, and it is free of charge, that is mean no license fees no setup cost fees at all.

Moreover, he mentioned that Android Things is fully managed solution.

That is mean Google will be entirely responsible for the OS part of the IoT device. As well as unifying the SoM (system on modules), which also will standardize and certify know IC manufacturers like Mediatek, Qualcomm, NXP, Raspberry Pi and many more.

He also indicated that Google would support the certified SoMs for at least three years, that is mean Google will push all regular security patches and stability fixes periodically during this period.

In the presentation, he announced Android Things version 1.0. He also illustrates the roadmap for Android Things from the year 2018 until 2023, and demonstrate the major releases from 1.0 to 3.0, and indicated the support time for each major release in 3 years.

In the presentation, he illustrates Android Things software stack layers (Kernel, Device Configuration, Security, HAL, Android Framework + Android Things Support Library, Applications OEM apps, 3P apps).

Then he elaborated more on the Android Things Support Library, which includes all the services needed to communicate with our IoT device API ( I/ O, drivers, settings, device updates .. etc)

Then he talks more about Device configuration and security layers.

Then he illustrates some android codes, to show how easy to program with Android Things.

He also he talks about Android Things community hub.

In the end, he portrayed how we can develop our codes with Android Things, and list all the related product to do that such as:

  • Android SDK
  • Android Studio
  • Play Services Firebase
  • Cloud Platform

Moreover, then talk about Google Play service, and indicated that services are optional and not mandatory to develop an IoT app.

Moreover, finally, he talks about Management Console. He illustrated the prototyping process starting by developing the SoMs; then pick the right portfolio of the certified SoMs, then the final production stage. Then he indicated that the same underlying construction for IoT is the same what Google uses for their own devices.

Then the presenter invites the audience to visit the Sandbox demos; where google demonstrates IoT devices prototypes under one campus.

Conclusion, I find the webcast very informative and the presenter well informed about what he present. The presentation was a good insight for the future of IoT and what technology giant like Google can contribute in this field.

Mr. Wu’s statement is a confirmed way to demonstrate IoT benefits. Especially as the webinar was geared toward specific industry and the audience were mixed from manufacturing industry and freelance developers.

His portrayal of the future roadmap was a great thing in the presentation. However, he should talk about more specialize industry development for IoT such as the healthcare industry.

Moreover,  for three years support; was short period especially for security support, for example, if an IoT door device implemented then it is a problem if after three years google will not support that device anymore. (Chahid et al., 2017)

Overall, the webcast was very informative and well presented, and it was precise and well structure.

Android Things presentation (Google I/O ’18)(Wu, 2018)



CHAHID, Y., BENABDELLAH, M. & AZIZI, A. Internet of things security.  2017 International Conference on Wireless Technologies, Embedded and Intelligent Systems (WITS), 19-20 April 2017 2017. 1-6.
WU, V. 2018. What’s new in Android Things [Online]. Available: [Accessed 24/6 2018].

One Minute Paper – Information Systems Thinking


by Naief Budawelah    |   Student ID: @00508322

I have learned that the Information is a result of processed raw data that was collected, processed, analyzed and computerized to give a mean-full output, which is called information finally.

The IS lecture was very informative for me, especially when starting the talk about ERP systems, where the professor was discussing the transformation from the regular paper works to the digital realm.

What I also learned, that by implementing ERP system can improve productivity, increase efficiencies, decrease costs and streamline business workflow.

Here is a summary for some of the essential features of the ERP systems as I learned from the lecture:

  1. EfficiencyERP Systems eliminates the repetitive processes and effectively reduces the need for manual data entry. The ERP system will also simplify business practices and make it easier and more efficient for companies to collect data.
  2. Cost: The fact that by implementing ERP systems does not come with a cheap cost, however, the advantage of implementing such system keep the company ahead of the competition in the market and can’t afford to go back to paperwork process again.
  3. Forecast: ERP systems give the decision makers on the company boards the right tools they need to forecast the market and do the proper business intelligence of the current market status, so they can steer their company toward the right path and estimate the loss and gain in the future before it occurred.
  4. Customer Service: Providing high-quality customer service is a very tough challenge without an ERP system in-place, especially when customer service department wanted to dig for in-depth information about their customers to give the proper service as required. And by using such system will streamline the customer service workflow and can interact better with the customers and improving the relationship with them through using well and reliable source of information and historical data as well. Thus, will make marketing task more comfortable for the marketing team in the company with automatic marketing function and contact center… and so forth, to ensure the customer is being interacted with consistently.

However, the drawback for the Salford/RKC online coursewares the video quality was not as good as expected it, it was, however, as if was recorded in the lecturer bedroom. Unlike the other online courses where the producer of the courseware makes it with very high-quality filming quality as well as well-made teaching materials such as MIT online courses, Coursera .. and others.